Neo-Marxist Trends in Franco's Spain: Jesús Aguirre and the Frankfurt School
Jesús Aguirre is regarded as the introducer of the Frankfurt School in Spain because he produced the various Spanish translations of numerous works of different members of the Frankfurt School. Despite the existence of these texts, the Frankfurt School, and Neo-Marxist trends in general are considered to have had very little impact on Spanish thought, and particularly so during the Franco dictatorship. The aim of this paper is to point out the interest in Marxism as well as in Neo-Marxism that existed at that time. The latter was a response to problems that were arising with Neo-capitalism into which Spain was immersed since the beginning of the process of economic reform and stabilisation (1958). This paper will focus on the figure of Jesús Aguirre for two reasons; firstly, the unusual combination of his position as Duque de Alba and simultaneous Marxist convictions, and secondly his interest in this topic. I will draw a comparison between him and Marcuse, as representative of the Frankfurt School in order to explore the possible coincidences, parallelisms as well as the divergences that may be found in their socio-political backgrounds, their interests, and their theoretical standpoints.
Keywords: Spain, Jesús Aguirre, Marcuse, Marxism, Neo-Marxism, Frankfurt School
Miss Beatriz Caballero Rodriguez
PhD Student at Edinburgh University, PhD Student, Hispanic Studies, Modern Languages and Cultures